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Stéfy, 5i, collage, 24 x 36 inches. Katarokwi-ingston, ON (detail). Photograph by Chris Miner.


Stéfy, 5i, collage, 24 x 36 inches. Katarokwi-ingston, ON (installation view at the Tett Centre). Photo by Chris Miner.


Stéfy, 5i, collage, 24 x 36 inches. Katarokwi-Kingston, ON (detail). Photo by Chris Miner.


"In 1998, section 215 & 702 of the US Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) ordered third-parties sites to turn over evidence and data if the US government saw it as relevant to an investigation. Section 215 was revisited and strengthened after the start of the War on Terror, in 2005.[14] Similarly in 2015, the Canadian Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness proposed implementing a new anti-terrorist bill of a similar nature: C-51.[15] By looking at Five Eyes—a negotiated partnership formed by Canada, the US, the UK, Australia, and New Zealand—it is evident that Canada and US surveillance plans are inextricably linked to one another. This project looks at the United  States as a method of understanding and analyzing Canada’s surveillance society.

David Lyon writes, ‘the NSA act as the lead “eye” of the Five Eye’s partners’,[16] implying that the NSA is largely integrated into Canada’s policy and procedures. These assertions were also supported and brought to citizen’s attention by Edward Snowden in 2013. 5i, also known as Bug Eye (Figure 5), is a mosaic-like image that tessellates small images of NSA and CSIS sites to create a larger-scale image of Fort Meade. This manipulated image juxtaposes NSA sites and CSIS sites in a way that visually translates the partnerships and negotiations that happen between these sites and governments.

Through Five Eyes, Canada, the U.S, UK, Australia and New Zealand cohesively work together to ensure an international survival state. 5i creates a visual way of critiquing, contending, and questioning these partnerships". McKnight, 2018 in Drain Magazine)

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